Tuesday, May 10, 2011

Silver Since Westphalia

Noting that "the price of silver, oil and other commodities has collapsed," Maurizio d'Orlando says, "In addition to its financial aspects, it involved public debt and an endless depression or hyperinflation" — Prices of silver and other commodities herald a new crisis. "All this is connected to the price of gold and silver," he writes, "which has been controlled for centuries by various groups, today by Goldman Sachs and JP Morgan," going on to offer us some history:
    In 1648, the universality of the Holy Roman Empire and Western Christianity ended after surviving the conflict between Catholics and Protestants. The Holy Roman Empire ceased to exist 250 years later, in 1918, but the centuries-old monetary uniformity based on the silver standard began to crumble right after the Treaty of Westphalia. Forty years later, in 1688, another invasion took place in England, after William the Conqueror in 1066. It was funded by a group of anti-Catholic conspirators who brought to power another William, of Orange this time (who is still celebrated in Northern Ireland by local Orangemen for his victory over Catholics). One of the main players in the conspiracy was philosopher and politician John Locke. It included Calvinists, proto-Masons (the Rosicrucians) who backed Cromwell’s Revolution and Jewish bankers in Amsterdam (for example, the Machado and Pereira, Baron Lopes Suasso and other Dutch Sephardic Jews) who had connections with the Dutch East India Company). Other supporters include names that are still known today: John Churchill, ancestor of Winston Churchill, and Mocatta and Goldsmid of Moses Mocatta, which survives in Scotia Mocatta, a gold bullion bank that takes part in the London gold fixing.

    William of Orange replaced the legitimate constitutional king, the Catholic James II Stuart. As a usurper, he knew that he owed his power to those who funded his takeover, hence his nickname, “the bankers’ king”. Six years later, in 1694, after the “Glorious Revolution”, William of Orange paid off his debt by granting a private bank, the Bank of England, a monopoly over printing money without an obligation of holding gold reserves. This was the start of paper money with legal tender, a model followed by most other national banks, including the US Federal reserve.

    A few years later, in 1717, when the first Free Mason lodge was created, an important and revolutionary event in the history of money took place, the most significant since the monetary reforms of the first Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne.

    For nine centuries, the silver standard had been the basis of the monetary system. The Carolingian pound was the equivalent of a pound of silver. Given the highly decentralised nature of the Holy Roman Empire, the currency took on several names in different places. In France, it became known as the livre tournois because it was minted at the Abbey of Saint Martin in the Touraine region. Until recently, the term itself was still being used colloquially.

    In 1717, as Master of the Royal Mint, Isaac Newton (better known as a physicist and astronomer, but also a member of a number of esoteric societies), unexpectedly established parity between the silver and gold standards. Eventually, silver money ceased to be a trading currency.

    The reason for this was essentially political, part of a struggle with the Catholic Habsburgs, who had access to Latin American silver from Mexico and Bolivia (Potosí).

    Since that time, the English-speaking world built an empire and came to rule the waves. Even Napoleon failed to undermine English dominance when he tried to impose a new universal monetary unit, the Franc.

    Finally, it is worth to note that the introduction of opium in China by British merchants in the first part of the 19th century was linked to silver, which the Asian giant produced in great quantities.
He promises more tomorrow, and so do I.

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Blogger hoihoi51 said...

those silver was from here
Iwami Ginzan Silver Mine

6:03 PM  
Blogger The Western Confucian said...

Fascinating. Further reading for those interested: Iwami Ginzan Silver Mine.

7:06 PM  

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