Anne Barbeau Gardiner reviews "a first-rate, highly informative study of the American clergy's involvement in eugenics from the 1880s through the 1920s" — The Betrayal at the Root of the Culture Wars. Not all clergy, of course:
- In those days, Catholics still stood as a united front and, according to Rosen, were the eugenic movement's "staunchest opponents." True, a couple of priests from the Catholic University of America (John Ryan and John Cooper) served for years on the advisory council of the American Eugenics Society (AES) and, by lending their names, gave an "inestimable influence to the eugenics movement." Yet even they engaged in criticizing the movement from inside and insistently questioned the science behind sterilization laws. They resigned after Pope Pius XI condemned sterilization in 1930.